TESL Canada Journal, Volume 29, Special Issue 6, 2012

A Critical Review of the Canadian Empirical Literature: Documenting Generation 1.5’s K-16 Trajectories

Bruce Garnett


Little empirical research has ever systematically documented the academic trajectories of Generation 1.5 in Canadian schools. Indeed, this label has not even been used to define the population of interest in the studies reviewed here. Nonetheless, some earlier work, along with more current studies made possible by recent availability of data, has created a small blossoming of relevant literature that might now be critically synthesized. Therefore, this report synthesizes 17 available largescale Canadian empirical studies that examine the outcomes and trajectories of immigrant youth in Canadian K-12 schools and university. Despite differences in variables across the studies, this article finds that school outcomes vary predictably among ethnocultural groups and by English-language proficiency. It also finds that the role of socioeconomic status in explaining these differences is not yet clear. It appears that some immigrant groups are underserved and that teachers may be underprepared for classrooms of linguistic and ethnocultural diversity. Policy implications and further research directions are discussed.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v29i0.1109

ISSN: 0826-435X
Online ISSN: 1925-8917 

TESL Canada Journal is indexed in CBCA Education (Canadian Education Index), EBSCO, ERIC, The Gale Group, and H.W. Wilson